What is PDCA and how to use them ?
PDCA cycle is the manufacturing plant in a simple and effective management methods, one we all understand, but it is more difficult to use, the simple things to do, is a very simple thing, such as 5S is very simple to say, but really 5S do not do a few business. It can be said that a business as long as the simple way to implement a simple way, than the form, the pursuit of a variety of advanced management methods to be effective and more!
First, PDCA cycle
The four letters of PDCA and their meanings in the PDCA cycle are as follows:
1. P (Plan) - plan
Determine the goals and objectives, determine the activity plan;
2. D (Do) - Execute
Field to do, to achieve the contents of the plan;
3. C (Check) - check
Summarize the results of the implementation plan, pay attention to the results, identify the problem;
4. A (Action) - action
The results of the summary check are processed, the successful experience is affirmed and properly promoted, standardized; the lessons of failure are summarized so as not to reproduce the unresolved issues into the next PDCA cycle.
Things to do the plan, plan to go after the implementation of the implementation of the process of inspection, check the results later, and then check the results of the improvement, implementation, to improve, so that no improvement problems and into the next cycle , To form a PDCA cycle.
Second, the characteristics of PDCA cycle
1. It is repeated
The four processes of the PDCA cycle do not run at once, but rather go through again and again. A cycle is over, to solve some of the problems, there may be problems are not resolved, or there have been new problems, and then the next PDCA cycle, and so on.
2. Large ring with small ring
Similar to the relationship between the planetary train system, the whole system of a company or organization and its internal sub-systems, is the organic logic of the small ring.
PDCA cycle is not to stay in a level of the cycle, the process of solving the problem is the gradual rise in the level of the process.
4. Statistical tools
The PDCA cycle uses scientific statistical concepts and approaches. As an effective tool for promoting work, finding problems and solving problems, a typical model is called "four stages" and "eight steps".
Third, the four stages of PDCA
Take the design product as an example to introduce the four stages of PDAC
1. the planning phase
Through the market survey, user visits, etc., to find out the user's product quality requirements, to determine the quality policy, quality objectives and quality plans. Including the status quo investigation, analysis, to determine the cause, to develop plans.
2. Design and implementation phase
Implement the content specified in the previous phase. According to the quality standards for product design, trial production, testing and planning before the implementation of personnel training.
3. Check the stage
Mainly in the implementation of the program or after the implementation of the inspection, the implementation of the situation to see if the expected results of the expected results.
4. Processing phase
Mainly based on the inspection results, to take appropriate measures. Consolidate the results, the success of the experience as much as possible into the standard, the standardization of legacy issues are transferred to the next PDCA cycle to solve. That is, to consolidate the measures and the next step.
Four, PDCA eight steps
1. Analyze the status quo and discover the problem
Before you plan, you need to analyze what is the status quo? Where is the problem? You can analyze quality issues, delivery issues, safety issues, and efficiency issues.
The first step to find the problem, like a doctor to see a doctor.
2. Analyze the influencing factors
The first step to the pulse, the second step to complete the pulse, the analysis of the various factors in the problem, this time you can use a lot of methods, such as fish bone map, 5W2H, 4M, etc., with these methods to analyze, in the end What are the factors?
3. Analyze the main factors
After analyzing all the analytical factors, analyze the main factors. Each problem has a small number of major factors, such as the impact of this problem there are ten factors, in accordance with the principle of twenty-eight, about two to three is the main factor to find the main factors to be able to completely solve the problem, If you can not find the main factor, the problem is no way to solve.
4. take measures
After analyzing the main reason, take action against the main reason. When taking measures, consider the following questions:
Why should we develop this measure?
• Why should this measure be developed?
• What are the goals?
Where is it done?
• Who does it?
• When do it?
• how to do?
This is 5W1H: the first W is Why, why do this thing, which is the most important, why should this measure? The second W is what, where are we going? What are we going to do? The third W is Where, where to do? The fourth W is Who, who is responsible for the completion? The fifth W is When, what time to complete?
These 5W1H, have to appear in our plan, to consider these five issues.
That is, in accordance with the requirements of the plan to do, start the implementation of the implementation of the general requirements of employees to implement.
Compare the results of the implementation with the required goals.
If you want to check there is a problem, we set the plan to the stage when the target, if there is no stage how to check the target? This thing to complete a month, it must say where the first week, where the second week, where the third week, if not this, there is no way to do the inspection, so the plan must be divided to set, or even every day, Every hour, have its goal, this time to check, if not the goal, there is no way to check. After the inspection is finished, the comparison is made.
The success of the experience summed up, the development of the corresponding standards.
8. Move the unresolved or emerging problem to the next PDCA loop
Each problem does not necessarily rely on a PDCA cycle, you can solve the out, sometimes resolved once, and sometimes may be a few times. Seeing is the same, the best way is to keep your health, do not go to see a doctor. In other words, no problem is the best, a problem to solve the problem sometimes, not once again can be resolved out.
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