PMMA material introduction
Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), also known as acrylic, acrylic (Acrylic) or plexiglass, Lucite (trade name), in Hong Kong, more called Aga Lijiao, with high Transparency, low price, easy to machine, etc., is a glass substitute material that is often used frequently.
The monomer of polymethyl methacrylate is methyl methacrylate (MMA, acrylic monomer).
The density of PMMA is lower than that of glass: the density of PMMA is about 1.15-1.19 g/cm3, which is half of glass (2.40-2.80 g/cm3) and 43% of metallic aluminum (belonging to light metal).
PMMA has high mechanical strength: PMMA has a relative molecular mass of about 2 million. It is a long-chain polymer and the molecular chain is very soft. Therefore, PMMA has high strength and resistance to stretching and impact. It is 7 to 18 times higher than ordinary glass. There is a heated and stretched plexiglass in which the molecular segments are arranged in a very orderly manner, resulting in a significant increase in the toughness of the material. The nail is nailed into the plexiglass, and even if the nail penetrates, no crack is generated. This kind of plexiglass will not break into pieces after being broken by bullets. Therefore, the stretched PMMA can be used as a bulletproof glass and also as a canopy on a military aircraft.
The melting point of PMMA is lower: PMMA has a melting point of about 130–140 ° C (265–285 ° F), which is much lower than the temperature of about 1000 degrees of glass.
PMMA has a high light transmittance
Visible light: PMMA is currently the most excellent polymer transparent material, with a light transmittance of 92%, which is higher than that of glass.
Ultraviolet light: Quartz can completely transmit ultraviolet light, but the price is high. Ordinary glass can only pass 0.6% of ultraviolet light. PMMA can effectively filter out ultraviolet light with a wavelength of less than 300 nm, but the effect of filtering between 300 nm and 400 nm is poor. Some manufacturers coat the PMMA surface to increase its effectiveness and properties of filtering out 300 nm to 400 nm UV light. On the other hand, PMMA has better stability than polycarbonate in the case of ultraviolet light.
Infrared: PMMA allows infrared (IR) transmission of wavelengths less than 2800 nm. Longer wavelength IR, when less than 25,000 nm, can be substantially blocked. There is a special colored PMMA that allows specific wavelengths of IR to pass through while blocking visible light (for remote control or thermal sensing, etc.).
The glass transition temperature of PMMA is about 105 °C.
Due to its large branching, polymethyl methacrylate has a high viscosity, so the processing speed is slow when using the hot working method. The plexiglass can be cut not only by a lathe, but also by a drilling machine, and acetone can be used. The chloroform and other materials that are bonded into various shapes can also be processed into plastic hulls, such as blow molding, injection, extrusion, and the like, from small cockpit covers to dentures and trays.
The cyanoacrylate, methylene chloride or chloroform can dissolve the plexiglass slightly, and then the two plexiglass can be firmly bonded together.
Producing 1 kg of PMMA requires about 2 kg of oil. In the presence of oxygen, PMMA begins to burn at 458 ° C and burns to produce carbon dioxide, water, carbon monoxide and some low molecular compounds including formaldehyde.
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